The Impact of Climate on Disease Emergence, Transmission and Spread – Essay Example
The paper "The Impact of Climate on Disease Emergence, Transmission, and Spread" is an excellent example of an essay on environmental studies. The relative impact of sustained climate change on vector-borne diseases is difficult to predict. It requires long-term studies that not only look at the effects of climate change but also at the contributions of other agents of global change such as increased trade and travel, demographic shifts, civil unrest, changes in land use, water availability, and other issues. Adapting to the effects of climate change will require the development of adequate response plans, enhancement of surveillance systems, and the development of effective and locally appropriate strategies to control and prevent vector-borne diseases.
The impact of climate on disease emergence, transmission and spread:
1) Climate change and increased climatic variability are particularly likely to affect vector-borne diseases (Table 1). The influence of climate on vector-borne diseases can be explained by the fact that the arthropod vectors of these diseases are ectothermic (cold-blooded) and, therefore, subject to the effects of fluctuating temperatures on their development, reproduction, behavior and population dynamics 3,7,99–106. Temperature also can affect pathogen development within vectors and interact with humidity to influence vector survival and, hence, vectorial capacity.
2) The seasonality and amount of precipitation in an area also can strongly influence the availability of breeding sites for mosquitoes and other species that have aquatic immature stages. For those diseases, that are both vector-borne and zoonotic (i.e., have vertebrate reservoirs other than humans), climatic variables can affect the distribution and abundance of vertebrate host species. This, in turn, can affect vector population dynamics and disease transmission106.