Chronic Kidney Disease – Literature review Example

The paper "Chronic Kidney Disease" is a worthy example of a literature review on health sciences and medicine. Chronic Kidney Disease (CKD) has become one of the significant health concerns in Australia as it leads to the increased burden of illness and early death while the majority of the population remain unaware of its causes. The reason for this situation is that there is a complex interaction of factors that may cause the CKD amongst the Australians. Levey et al (2007) found out that CKD has become a global problem that most nations including Australia are aware of, even though the causes seem to be complex and a mixture of several factors.
 Australian Institute of Health and Welfare (2005) argues that most Australians are confused as to the causes of CKD which may be classified under the behavioural risk factors, socio-environmental factors, biomedical risk factors or the predisposing factors. Accordingly, White et al (2005) argue that most Australians remain unaware that risk factors associated with their behaviours such as tobacco smoking, physical inactivity, poor diet and socio-environmental elements such as the status of an individual the environment can cause CKD. In addition to these, most Australians remain unaware that biomedical risk factors such as diabetes, obesity, glomuleronephritis or urinary tract infections and predisposing factors such as age, gender, ethnicity, genetic makeup or family history may lead to CKD.
How aware are Australians of risk factors of CKD? Australians remain aware of the risk factors that may lead to chronic kidney failure (CKD). White et al (2008) found out that most Australians numbering about 1.5 million people are unaware of them suffering from CKD until it reaches an advanced stage. Apart from this, Australian’s knowledge of CKD risk factors is poor with only 9% aware of diabetes and 3% reporting high blood pressure as a factor that increases the risk of contracting CKD. This confirms that findings by Australian Bureau of Statistics (2012) which has noted that out of the 1.7 million Australians that suffer from CKD, only less than 10% of this population are aware that they have this condition pointing to the fact that they are grossly unaware of the risk factors associated with it. 
Further, despite the observation by Chadban et al (2003) that the number of those suffering from CKD in Australia and are unaware of it is a staggering 1.5 million people out of 1.7 million adults above the age of 18 years, there has been an improved awareness of the risk factors of CKD.  This study by AUSDIAB has enlightened the Australian community of the metabolic risk factors that may lead to CKD, for instance, hypertension, diabetes and the way of life that may affect them.
How aware are Australians of how the protective factors of CKD? According to Plantinga, Tuot and Powe (2010), CKD can be managed or prevented amongst the Australian communities through early protective interventions amongst the populations. Even though most Australians are unaware of the protective factors of CKD, there have been efforts to educate and raise awareness of amongst Australian citizens and primary caregivers about them for better management of CKD. Therefore, Plantinga, Tuot and Powe (2010) argue that Australians have become increasingly aware that the reducing of the prevalence factors that increase the risk of CKD due to behaviour, for example, the reduction or stopping of the smoking of tobacco and increasing physical activity and exercises can prevent CKD. 
Health care providers have also endeavoured to increase awareness with regard to management of hypertension and diabetes as well as control of blood glucose can help in preventing CKD. To this end, Howard et al (2010) found out that most Australians have become aware of preventing CKD through early detection and the treatment of the major factors that increase the risks such as diabetes, high blood pressure and the level of protein in the urine of the citizens. They were especially aware that this screening should be majorly carried out amongst the elderly and will, in the long run, be cost-effective for preventing heart disease or death.